Metal Oxides as Soluble Nano Catalyst on Biodiesel: A Review


Setyo Pambudi
Agus Triono
Mochamad Asrofi
Iid Mufaidah
Yeni Variyana
R. A. Ilyas


Nano particles of metal oxide developed as soluble nano additive in liquid fuels to improve fuel quality. One application of nano metal oxide particles is an additive to biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Pure biodiesel has a relatively lower calorific value compared to fossil fuels. Low calorific value results in increased brake specific fuel consumption. Moreover, biodiesel has a higher density and viscosity compared to fossil fuel. The content of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) in exhaust gases with biodiesel is higher than fossil fuels. Metal oxide nanoparticles are added to biodiesel between 6 to 80 nm with concentrations about 50 to 500 ppm. Addition of metal oxide nanoparticles to biodiesel can improve brake thermal efficiency, reduce brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and improve carbon dioxide (CO2) emission due to the catalytic effect of metal oxide nanoparticles. Metal oxide acts as an oxidation catalyst thereby reduce the carbon combustion activation temperature and thus enhances hydrocarbon oxidation, promoting complete combustion. Nanoparticles that are often used in various studies are nickel (II) oxide (NiO), cerium (IV) oxide (CeO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and silicon dioxide (SiO2). This review paper describes the progress and development of nano metal oxide applications as additives for biodiesel, and the discussion in this paper is divided into 3 main topics, including the effects of nanoparticles on the properties of biodiesel, engine performance, and emission characteristics.


Author Biographies

Setyo Pambudi, Banyuwangi Institute of Technology and Business Muhammadiyah

Department of Industrial Engineering

Agus Triono, Banyuwangi Institute of Technology and Business Muhammadiyah

Department of Industrial Engineering

Mochamad Asrofi, University of Jember

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Iid Mufaidah, Banyuwangi Institute of Technology and Business Muhammadiyah

Department of Agribusiness

Yeni Variyana, Banyuwangi Institute of Technology and Business Muhammadiyah

Department of Chemical Engineering

R. A. Ilyas, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Center for Advanced Composite Materials

How to Cite
Pambudi, S., Triono, A., Asrofi, M., Mufaidah, I., Variyana, Y., & Ilyas, R. A. (2021). Metal Oxides as Soluble Nano Catalyst on Biodiesel: A Review. Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, 5(2), 95-105.


  1. Aalam, C. S., Saravanan, C. G., & Kannan, M. (2015). Experimental investigations on a CRDI system assisted diesel engine fuelled with aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54(3), 351–358.
  2. Anand, J. S. B. R. B. (2013). The influence of nano additive blended biodiesel fuels on the working characteristics of a diesel engine. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 257–264.
  3. Annamalai, M., Dhinesh, B., Nanthagopal, K., SivaramaKrishnan, P., Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J., Parthasarathy, M., & Annamalai, K. (2016). An assessment on performance, combustion and emission behavior of a diesel engine powered by ceria nanoparticle blended emulsified biofuel. Energy Conversion and Management, 123, 372–380.
  4. Ashok, B., Nanthagopal, K., & Vignesh, D. S. (2017). Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester biodiesel blend as an alternate fuel for diesel engine applications. Alexandria Engineering Journal.
  5. Chauhan, B. S., Kumar, N., & Cho, H. M. (2011). A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel oil and its blends. Energy, 37(1), 616–622.
  6. Demirbas, A. (2005). Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 31(5–6), 466–487.
  7. Dhar, A., Kevin, R., & Kumar, A. (2012). Production of biodiesel from high-FFA neem oil and its performance , emission and combustion characterization in a single cylinder DICI engine. Fuel Processing Technology, 97, 118–129.
  8. Eaton, P., Quaresma, P., Soares, C., Neves, C., de Almeida, M. P., Pereira, E., & West, P. (2017). A direct comparison of experimental methods to measure dimensions of synthetic nanoparticles. Ultramicroscopy, 182, 179–190.
  9. Energy, U. S. (2017). International Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040. Retrived from
  10. Fukuda, H., Kondo, A., & Noda, H. (2001). Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 92(5), 405–416.
  11. Gong, Z., Wenfei, W., Zhao, Z., & Li, B. (2018). Combination of catalytic combustion and catalytic denitration on semi-coke with Fe2O3 and CeO2. Catalysis Today, 318(2010), 59–65.
  12. Gunasekar, P., Manigandan, S., Ilangovan, N., Nithya, S., & Devipriya, J. (2017). Effect of TiO2 and nozzle geometry on diesel emissions fueled with biodiesel blends. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 0(0), 1–19.
  13. Haberl, H., Beringer, T., Bhattacharya, S. C., Erb, K. H., & Hoogwijk, M. (2010). The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2(5–6), 394–403.
  14. Herbinet, O., Pitz, W. J., & Westbrook, C. K. (2008). Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate. Combustion and Flame, 154, 507–528.
  15. Hoekman, S. K., & Robbins, C. (2012). Review of the effects of biodiesel on NOx emissions. Fuel Processing Technology, 96, 237–249.
  16. How, H. G., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., Teoh, Y. H., & Chuah, H. G. (2018). Effect of Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blends on combustion , performance , exhaust particulate matter and gaseous emissions in a multi- cylinder diesel engine. Fuel, 227(October 2017), 154–164.
  17. Karthikeyan, S., Elango, A., & Prathima, A. (2016). The effect of cerium oxide additive on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine operated with rice bran biodiesel and its blends. International Journal of Green Energy, 13(3), 267–273.
  18. Karthikeyan, S., & Prathima, A. (2016). Environmental Effects Environmental effect of CeO2 nanoadditive on biodiesel. 7036.
  19. Karthikeyan, S., & Prathima, A. (2017a). Environmental effect of CI engine using microalgae methyl ester with doped nano additives. Transportation Research Part D, 50, 385–396.
  20. Karthikeyan, S., & Prathima, A. (2017b). Microalgae biofuel with CeO2 nano additives as an eco-friendly fuel for CI engine. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 39(13), 1332–1338.
  21. Krupakaran, R. L., Hariprasasd, T., Gopalakrishna, A., & Babu, P. (2016). The performance and exhaust emissions investigation of a diesel engine using γ-Al2O3 nanoparticle additives to biodiesel. Carbon Management, 7(3–4), 233–241.
  22. Mahalingam, S., & Ganesan, S. (2018). Effect of nano-fuel additive on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine using biodiesel blends with diesel fuel. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 0(0), 1–6.
  23. Mirzajanzadeh, M., Tabatabaei, M., Ardjmand, M., & Rashidi, A. (2015). A novel soluble nano-catalysts in diesel – biodiesel fuel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions. FUEL, 139(x), 374–382.
  24. Mofijur, M., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., & Atabani, A. E. (2013). Evaluation of biodiesel blending, engine performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester: Malaysian perspective. Energy, 55, 879–887.
  25. Najafi, G. (2018). Diesel engine combustion characteristics using nano-particles in biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel, 212(January), 668–678.
  26. Nanthagopal, K., Ashok, B., Tamilarasu, A., Johny, A., & Mohan, A. (2017). Influence on the effect of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as an additive with Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester in a CI engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 146, 8–19.
  27. Nithya, S., Manigandan, S., Gunasekar, P., Devipriya, J., & Saravanan, W. S. R. (2017). The Effect of engine emission on canola biodiesel blends with TiO2. International Journal of Ambient Energy. 0750.
  28. Özener, O., Yüksek, L., Ergenç, A. T., & Özkan, M. (2014). Effects of soybean biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. Fuel, 115(10), 875–883.
  29. Pambudi, S., Ilminnafik, N., Junus, S., & Kustanto, M. N. (2021). Experimental study on the effect of nano additives γAl2O3 and equivalence ratio to Bunsen flame characteristic of biodiesel from nyamplung (Calophyllum Inophyllum). Automotive Experiences, 4(2), 51–61.
  30. Pandian, A. K., Ramakrishnan, R. B. B., & Devarajan, Y. (2017). Emission analysis on the effect of nanoparticles on neat biodiesel in unmodified diesel engine. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(29), 23273–23278.
  31. Praveen, A., Rao, G. L. N., & Balakrishna, B. (2017). Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel blends with TiO 2 nanoadditives and EGR. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum.
  32. Puzyn, T., Rasulev, B., Gajewicz, A., Hu, X., Dasari, T. P., Michalkova, A., Hwang, H. M., Toropov, A., Leszczynska, D., & Leszczynski, J. (2011). Using nano-QSAR to predict the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles. Nature Nanotechnology, 6(3), 175–178.
  33. Radhakrishnan, S., Munuswamy, D. B., Devarajan, Y., Arunkumar, T., & Mahalingam, A. (2018). Effect of nanoparticle on emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with cashew nut shell biodiesel. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 40(20), 2485–2493.
  34. Raheman, H., & Ghadge, S. V. (2007). Performance of compression ignition engine with mahua (Madhuca indica) biodiesel. Fuel. 86, 2568–2573.
  35. Rahman, S. M. A., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., Abedin, M. J., Sanjid, A., & Sajjad, H. (2013). Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions. Energy Conversion and Management, 76, 362–367.
  36. Srinidhi, P. C., Madhusudhan, A., & Channapattana, S. V. (2019). Effect of NiO nanoparticles on performance and emission characteristics at various injection timings using biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel, 235(March 2018), 185–193.
  37. Tüccar, G., Tosun, E., Özgür, T., & Aydin, K. (2014). Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of citrus sinensis biodiesel and diesel fuel. Fuel, 132, 7–11.
  38. Van Gerpen, J. (2005). Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Processing Technology, 86(10), 1097–1107.
  39. Varatharajan, K., & Cheralathan, M. (2012). Influence of fuel properties and composition on NO x emissions from biodiesel powered diesel engines: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6), 3702–3710.
  40. Venu, H., & Madhavan, V. (2016). Effect of Al2O3nanoparticles in biodiesel-diesel-ethanol blends at various injection strategies: Performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Fuel, 186, 176–189.
  41. Wang, Y., Zhou, Z., Yang, W., Zhou, J., Liu, J., Wang, Z., & Cen, K. (2010). Combustion of hydrogen-air in micro combustors with catalytic Pt layer. Energy Conversion and Management, 51(6), 1127–1133.
  42. Wickham, D. T., Cook, R., Voss, S. De, Engel, J. R., & Nabity, J. (2006). Soluble nano-catalysts for high performance fuels. Journal of Russian Laser Research. 27(6), 552–561.
  43. Wierzbicki, T. A., Lee, I. C., & Gupta, A. K. (2014). Combustion of propane with Pt and Rh catalysts in a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor. APPLIED ENERGY, 130, 350–356.
  44. Yuvarajan, D., Dinesh Babu, M., BeemKumar, N., & Amith Kishore, P. (2018). Experimental investigation on the influence of titanium dioxide nanofluid on emission pattern of biodiesel in a diesel engine. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 9(1), 47–52.